Every Sufferer Is A Saviour..

Wednesday, 19 February 2014

To prevent the breakup of marriages and families,pre-litigation mediation centre (PLMC), the first of its kind in the country has started..

Pre-litigation mediation centres to address marital disputes

Subhash Chandra N S, Bangalore, April 7, 2013, DHNS:
Move aimed at preventing the breakup of marriages
To prevent the breakup of marriages and families, the Bangalore Mediation Centre (BMC) is setting up a pre-litigation mediation centre (PLMC), the first of its kind in the country.
Several matrimonial disputes reach courts, without any attempt to save the relationships. With thousands of marriages being dissolved every year, the BMC, following the Supreme Court order of February 22, 2013, has now stepped in to save the institution of marriage. Plans are now on to start PLMCs across the State and, the first one would come up in Bangalore.  
                                       Says Justice K L Manjunath, judge, Karnataka High Court and president, Bangalore Mediation Centre: “The  centres will be a reality in two months. The process to set up the PLMC has already begun. We held a meeting of six master trainers two weeks ago. A committee comprising senior mediators has been constituted, which will be soon submitting a report,” he told Deccan Herald.

The PLMCs will explore the possibilities of reconcilation of the couple on the verge of divorce, seeking maintenence or rights of child. The BMC, which receives about 65 per cent of the matrimony cases, says that 64 per cent of them are resolved through mediation.

“If these matters are prolonged, the relationship will turn bitter and beyond repair. This has been observed by the Supreme Court too. We have already written to district judges to sensitise all judicial officers in the respective districts on PLMC. We will start with the PLMC in Bangalore, before having such facilities across the State,” said an official from the BMC.

The BMC will also organise workshops for judges, police officers and officials from Women and Child Welfare department.

Supreme Court orderThe Supreme Court directions came in the Srinivasa Rao vs Deepa case. Hearing the petition by Rao, a government official from Andhra Pradesh, the division bench comprising Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai and Aftab Alam directed the state judiciaries to set up PLMCs.

Rao, who had married Deepa on April 25, 1999, got separated from her two days later on April 27, 1999. He moved the apex court against the Andhra Pradesh High Court verdict allowing his wife’s plea of seeking restitution of conjugal rights. The Supreme Court observed that the relationship would not have soured if there was pre-litigation counselling for the couple. “If the parties were sent to a mediation centre or if they had access to a pre-litigation clinic, perhaps bitterness would not have escalated. Things would not have come to such a pass so early.”

The apex court said that before litigations are heard by courts, they must be referred to mediation centres. “When disputes are taken up by family court or by court of first instance for hearing, they must be referred to mediation centres.”

The bench also suggested that even offences punishable under section 498 ‘A’ of Indian Penal Code can be referred to mediation when the courts feel they can be settled through mediation and, if the parties are willing for settlement.


Sunday, 16 February 2014

A complete details of Bail---Regular or Anticipatory with Citations of SC Judgements.

                                                                     Om Prakash
                                                                     Principal Judge, family court
Introduction- Article 21 of Indian Constitution guarantees that life and liberty of a person can not be taken except in accordance with procedure established by law. Since arrest is one of the procedure of law to restrict the liberty of a person, bail is balancing procedure of law to protect the interest of person so arrested or apprehending arrest. The term 'bail' has not been statutorily defined either in Cr.P.C or in any other statute. 

Conceptually it is understood as a right for assertion of freedom against state imposing restraints since the UN Declaration of human rights of 1948, to which India is signatory, the concept of bail has found a place within the scope of human rights. The dictionary meaning of the expression 'bail' denotes a security for appearance of a prisoner for his release. Etymologically, the word is derived from an old French verb 'bailer' which means 'to give' or 'to deliver', although another view is that its derivation is from the Latin term 'bailulare', meaning 'to bear a burden'..Bail may thus be regarded as a mechanism whereby the state devolves upon the community,the function of securing the presence of the prisoners and at the same time involves participation of the community in administration of justice.i
Wharton's Law Lexicon explains 'bail' as “to set at liberty a person arrested or imprisoned on security being taken for his appearance.”
Bails are broadly divided in three categories-
·         Bail during investigation and trials
·         Anticipatory bail
·         Bail after conviction
Bailable Offences- Section 2(a) of Cr.P.C defines bailable offence as “an offence which is shown as bailable in the First Schedule, or which is made bailable by any other law for the time been in force.” Any offence which is not mentioned as bailable or non-bailable in any other law and is punishable with imprisonment for less than 3 years or with fine only is also bailable( Part II of schedule I of Cr.P.C)
A person arrested in connection with bailable offence has right to be released on bail. The right to claim bail u/s Section 436 of the Cr.P.C. in a bailable offence is an absolute and indefeasible right. There is no question of discretion in granting bail as the words of Section 436 are imperative. The proviso to section 436 provide that if the accused is indigent and is unable to furnish surity, he shall be released on his executing personal bond. The explanation to the said section provide that a person unable to give bail within a week of his arrest shall be presumed to be indigent person. In other words, a person arrested in connection with bailable offence should not be kept behind prison for more than a week and should be released on execution of personal bond. However if such person fails to comply with the conditions of bail bond as regards the time and place of attendance, his bail may be cancelled and the court may refuse to release him on bail on subsequent occasion.
A question arises that if an accused produced or appeared before a court for the first time in connection with bailable offence threatens the informant or witness or does some thing showing that fair trial of such case is not possible if he will remain on bail, whether the court may refuse to release him on bail. Similarly if an accused of bailable offence, being on bail, punctually comply the conditions of bail bond as regards time and place of attendance but does some thing prejudicial to fair trial of the case, whether the court can cancel his bail. In a recent ruling reported in AIR 2009 SC 1341,Hon,ble Supreme Court, by referring decisions reported in 1958 SCR 1226ii and 1967 (3) SCR 926iii has observed as follows:
“There is no express provision in the Code prohibiting the Court from re-arresting an accused released on bail under Section 436 of the Code. However, the settled judicial trend is that the High Court can cancel the bail bond while exercising inherent powers under Section 482 of the Code. According to this Court, a person accused of a bailable offence is entitled to be released on bail pending his trial, but he forfeits his right to be released on bail if his conduct subsequent to his release is found to be prejudicial to a fair trial. And this forfeiture can be made effective by invoking the inherent powers of the High Court under Section 482 of the Code”iv

Hon'ble Supreme Court, in the said ruling further observed:
“It may be noticed that sub-section (2) of Section 436 of the 1973 Code empowers any Court to refuse bail without prejudice to action under Section 446 where a person fails to comply with the conditions of bail bond giving effect to the view expressed by this Court in the above mentioned case. However, it is well settled that bail granted to an accused with reference to bailable offence can be cancelled only if the accused (1) misuses his liberty by indulging in similar criminal activity, (2) interferes with the course of investigation, (3) attempts to tamper with evidence of witnesses, (4) threatens witnesses or indulges in similar activities which would hamper smooth investigation, (5) attempts to flee to another country, (6) attempts to make himself scarce by going underground or becoming unavailable to the investigating agency, (7) attempts to place himself beyond the reach of his surety, etc. These grounds are illustrative and not exhaustive. However, a bail granted to a person accused of bailable offence cannot be cancelled on the ground that the complainant was not heard.”
Bail in Non Bailable offences- Offences which are not specifically described as bailable and are punishable with imprisonment for 3 years or more are non-bailable. Bail in such cases can not be claimed as of right and the court has discretion to allow or refuse bail to accused. However exercise of such discretion should be objective and judicious. In a recent ruling Hon'ble Supreme Court has observed:
“While dealing with an application for bail, there is a need to indicate in the order, reasons for prima facie concluding why bail was being granted particularly where an accused was charged of having committed a serious offence. It is necessary for the courts dealing with application for bail to consider among other circumstances, the following factors also before granting bail, they are :
1. The nature of accusation and the severity of punishment in case of conviction and the nature of supporting evidence;
2. Reasonable apprehension of tampering of the witness or apprehension of threat to the complainant;
3. Prima facie satisfaction of the Court in support of the charge,
Any order dehors such reasons suffers from non-application of mind.”v
There is no straight jacket formula for grant or refusal of bail and order in each case should be passed on its own merits. However there are some observation of Hon'ble Courts which should be kept in mind while dealing with the matters of bail. They are-
·         Elaborate discussion of evidences by reference of its relevancy and weight should not be made in bail order. The court should also refrain from giving findings or opinion about any witness or piece of evidence. However the order should not be cryptic or subjective.
·         The supervision notes cannot be utilized by the prosecution as a piece of material or evidence against the accused. At the same time the accused cannot make any reference to them for any purpose. If any reference is made before any court to the supervision notes, as has noted above they are not to be taken note of by the concerned court.vi
·         when a case is instituted on a complaint, the Court issues summons to the accused to appear in the Court and on such appearance, instead of being arrested, he would apply for bail. Unless there are compelling reasons, the Court would allow the accused to remain on bail, at least till the charge is framed. Even after charge is framed the situation would be reconsidered, if necessary, whether bail should be cancelled or not. vii
Anticipatory Bail - Section 438 Cr.P.C. gives power for grant of anticipatory bail. The term anticipatory bail is not defined either in Cr.P.C or in any statute. However anticipatory bail is commonly understood as an order directing release of any person on bail after execution of bond in the event of his arrest in connection with a particular case. The provision for anticipatory bail was not in Cr.P.C before 1974. The Law Commission, in its 41nd report, for the first time recommended insertion of provision for anticipatory bail and reasons recorded by commission are as follows-
"The suggestion for directing the release of a person on bail prior to his arrest (commonly known as "anticipatory bail") was carefully considered by us. Though there is a conflict of judicial opinion about the power of a Court to grant anticipatory bail, the majority view is that there is no such power under the existing provisions of the Code. The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to' implicate their rivals in false causes for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days. In recent times, with the accentuation of political rivalry, this tendency is showing signs of steady increase. Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail. We recommend the acceptance of this suggestion. We are further of the view that this special power should be conferred only on the High Court and the Court of Session, and that the order should take effect at the time of arrest or thereafter.”viii
The recommendation was accepted by central Govt. However the code of criminal procedure bill 1970 was referred to Law Commission with certain questions and the law commission headed by Hon'ble Justice PB Gajendragadker, former judge of Supreme Court in its 48th report approved insertion of provision for anticipatory bail but suggested as follows-
1.      Such power should be exercised in very exceptional circumstance.
2.      Final order should be made only after notice to public prosecutor. The initial order should only be an interim one.
3.      Direction can be issued only for reasons to be recorded, and if the court is satisfied that such a direction is necessary in the interest of justice.
4.      Notice of interim order as well as the final orders will be given to Superintendent of police forthwith.ix
The matter has again been considered by 'Malimath Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System'. on the point of exercise of power by Courts under Section 438 and grant of anticipatory bail in favour of applicants. The Committee observed that the provision as to anticipatory bail has often been 'misused by rich and influential people.' The Committee, however, opined to retain the provision subject to two conditions :
(i) Public Prosecutor should be heard by the Court before granting an application for anticipatory bail; and
(ii) Petition for anticipatory bail should be heard only by the Court of competent jurisdiction.
Exercise of Power u/s 438 Cr.P.C – There is no straight jacket formula for grant of anticipatory bail. The law commission, in its 41st report, considered this aspect also and observed as follows-
“We considered carefully the question of laying down in the statute certain conditions under which alone anticipatory bail could be granted. But we found that it may not be practicable to exhaustively enumerate those conditions; and moreover, laying down such conditions may be construed as prejudging (partially at any rate) the whole case. Hence we would leave it to the discretion of the court and prefer not to fetter such discretion in the statutory provision itself.”
Although the statutory provision itself does not provide guide lines for grant or refusal of anticipatory bail, yet the the reasons for which such provision has been recommended by law commission to be introduced in Cr.P.C. provides at-least basic idea about exercise of such power. Thus anticipatory bail may be granted where the court is satisfied that such a direction is necessary to be issued in the interest of justice as there exist sufficient reasons to show that:
1.      The accused has been implicated in a false cause for the purposes of disgracing him, or
2.      There are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or misuse his liberty while on bail.
In Gurubux Singh casex, the Constitution Bench laid down the following guidelines, which the Courts are required to keep in mind while dealing with an application for grant of anticipatory bail :
i) Though the power conferred under Section 438 of the Code can be described as of an extraordinary character, but this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only because it is of an extraordinary character. Nonetheless, the discretion under the Section has to be exercised with due care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.
ii) Before power under sub-section (1) of Section 438 of the Code is exercised, the Court must be satisfied that the applicant invoking the provision has reason to believe that he is likely to be arrested for a non-bailable offence and that belief must be founded on reasonable grounds. Mere "fear" is not belief, for which reason, it is not enough for the applicant to show that he has some sort of vague apprehension that someone is going to make an accusation against him, in pursuance of which he may be arrested. The grounds on which the belief of the applicant is based that he may be arrested for a non-bailable offence, must be capable of being examined by the Court objectively. Specific events and facts must be disclosed by the applicant in order to enable the Court to judge of the reasonableness of his belief, the existence of which is the sine qua non of the exercise of power conferred by the Section.
iii) The observations made in Balchand Jain's case [1976(4)SCC572], regarding the nature of the power conferred by Section 438 and regarding the question whether the conditions mentioned in Section 437 should be read into Section 438 cannot be treated as conclusive on the point. There is no warrant for reading into Section 438, the conditions subject to which bail can be granted under Section 437(1) of the Code and, therefore, anticipatory bail cannot be refused in respect of offences like criminal breach of trust for the mere reason that the punishment provided for is imprisonment for life. Circumstances may broadly justify the grant of bail in such cases too, though of course, the Court is free to refuse anticipatory bail in any case if there is material before it justifying such refusal.
iv) No blanket order of bail should be passed and the Court which grants anticipatory bail must take care to specify the offence or the offences in respect of which alone the order will be effective. While granting relief under Section 438(1) of the Code, appropriate conditions can be imposed under Section 438(2) so as to ensure an uninterrupted investigation. One such condition can even be that in the event of the police making out a case of a likely discovery under Section 27 of the Evidence Act, the person released on bail shall be liable to be taken in police custody for facilitating the recovery. Otherwise, such an order can become a charter of lawlessness and a weapon to stifle prompt investigation into offences which could not possibly be predicated when the order was passed.
v) The filing of First Information Report (FIR) is not a condition precedent to the exercise of power under Section 438. The imminence of a likely arrest founded on a reasonable belief can be shown to exist even if an FIR is not yet filed.
vi) An anticipatory bail can be granted even after an FIR is filed so long as the applicant has not been arrested.
vii) The provisions of Section 438 cannot be invoked after the arrest of the accused. After arrest, the accused must seek his remedy under Section 437 or Section 439 of the Code, if he wants to be released on bail in respect of the offence or offences for which he is arrested.
viii) An interim bail order can be passed under Section 438 of the Code without notice to the Public Prosecutor but notice should be issued to the Public Prosecutor or to the Government advocate forthwith and the question of bail should be re-examined in the light of respective contentions of the parties. The ad interim order too must conform to the requirements of the Section and suitable conditions should be imposed on the applicant even at that stage.
Apart from above-said broad guide lines, the exercise of such power has been subjected to judicial scrutiny since last more than 35 years and there are a number of judicial verdicts to suitably guide as to when, how, and in what manner direction may or may not be issued in exercise of such power. Some of such verdicts may be illustrated as under:
·         An interim order restraining arrest, if passed while dealing with an application under Section 438 of the Code will amount to interference in the Investigation, which cannot, at any rate, be done under Section 438 of the Code."xi
·         Imposing a condition of giving ten days prior notice, before arrest, is a condition not warranted by law(Union of India v Padma Narayan Agrawal)xii
·         If the applicants were only summoned under Section 108 of the Custom Act for recording of their statements, the application for anticipatory bail, in the circumstances, were premature.(Padma Narayan Agrawal Case Supra)
·         The section requires the applicant to show that he has reason to believe that he may be arrested. A belief can be said to be founded on reasonable grounds only if there is something tangible, on the basis of which, it can be said that the applicant's apprehension that he may be arrested is genuine.xiii
·         Anticipatory bail orders should be of a limited duration only and ordinarily on the expiry of that duration or extended duration, the court granting anticipatory bail should leave it to the regular court to deal with the matter on an appreciation of evidence placed before it after the investigation has made progress or the charge-sheet is submittedxiv
·         The applicant must show that he has 'reason to believe' that he may be arrested in a non-bailable offence.... Mere "fear" is not "belief for which reason it is not enough for the applicant to show that he has some sort of vague apprehension that some one is going to make an accusation against him in pursuance of which he may be arrested. Grounds on which the belief of the applicant is based that he may be arrested in non-bailable offence must be capable of being examined.xv
·         Very unreasonable and onerous condition as a condition precedent for grant of anticipatory bail can not be imposed. he imposition of condition to deposit a sum of Rs. 15 lacks in the form of FDR in the Trial Court is an unreasonable condition.xvi condition that an accused at the FIR stage should pay a huge sum of Rs. 2 lakhs to be set at liberty is onerous condition.xvii Condition that in the event of arrest, the appellants shall be enlarged on bail on their depositing the title deeds of property worth Rs. 20,00,000/- standing either in their name or in the name of third parties and also on their executing a personal bond of Rs. 25.000/- with two sureties for the like sum to his satisfaction is unreasonable condition.xviii
·         The conditions which can be imposed by the Court while granting anticipatory bail are enumerated in sub-section (2) of Section 438 and subsection (3) of Section 437 of the Code. Normally, conditions can be imposed (i) to secure the presence of the accused before the investigating officer or before the Court, (ii) to prevent him from fleeing the course of justice, (iii) to prevent him from tampering with the evidence or to prevent him from inducing or intimidating the witnesses so as to dissuade them from disclosing the facts before the police or Court or (iv) restricting the movements of the accused in a particular area or locality or to maintain law and order etc. To subject an accused to any other condition would be beyond jurisdiction of the power conferred on Court under Section 438 of the Code. While imposing conditions on an accused who approaches the Court under Section 438 of the Code, the Court should be extremely chary in imposing conditions and should not transgress its jurisdiction or power by imposing the conditions which are not called for at all.....Where the wife of the appellant has already approached appropriate Court for grant of maintenance, the condition imposed by the Court directing the appellant to pay maintenance to his wife and child is onerous, unwarranted.xix
·         For the purpose of grant of bail in cases of defalcation, the amount involved may be of some relevance but not the only consideration.xx
·         The fact, that a Court has either taken cognizance of the complaint or the investigating agency has filed a charge-sheet, would not by itself, in our opinion, prevent the concerned Courts from granting anticipatory bail in appropriate cases. The gravity of the offence is an important factor to be taken into consideration while granting such anticipatory bail so also the need for custodial interrogation, but these are only factors that must be borne in mind by the concerned Courts while entertaining a petition for grant of anticipatory bail and the fact of taking cognizance or filing of charge-sheet cannot by themselves be construed as a prohibition against the grant of anticipatory bail.xxi
Anticipatory bail & Regular bail, the distinction- The distinction between anticipatory bail and regular bail is academically clear and well defined. It has been repeatedly observed by Hon'ble High Court and Supreme Court that anticipatory bail granted u/s 438 Cr.P.C. should be for limited period and it should not bypass the regular courts in exercising powers u/s 437 Cr.P.C. In the case of Salauddin Seikh (AIR 1996 SC 1042) it has been observed:
“Under Section 438 Anticipatory bail is granted in anticipation of arrest in non-bailable case, but that does not mean that the regular court, which is to try the offender is sought to be by passed and that is the reason why the High Court very rightly fixed the outer date for the continuance of the bail and on the date of its expiry directed that petitioner to move the regular court for bail. That is the correct procedure to follow because it must be realised that when the Court of Session or the High Court is granting anticipatory bail, it is granted at a stage when the investigation is incomplete and, therefore it is not informed about the nature of evidence against the alleged offender. It is therefore, necessary that such anticipatory bail orders should be of a limited duration only and ordinarily on the expiry of that duration or extended duration the Court granting anticipatory bail should leave it to the regular Court to deal with the matter on an appreciation of evidence placed before it after the investigation has made progress or the chargesheet is submitted. ”
The other distinction is that power u/s 438Cr.P.C. about anticipatory bail is exercised while the accused is not in custody but is apprehending arrest whereas powers u/s 437 Cr.P.C. about regular bail is exercised after arrest of accused.
While considering the scope of 'limited duration' till when anticipatory bail may be granted, Hon'ble Supreme Court in ruling reported in 1996 SCALE 20 K.L.Verma v State and anr, observed-
“an order of anticipatory bail does not enure till the end of trial but it must be of limited duration as the regular Court cannot be bypassed. The limited duration must be determined having regard to the facts of the case and the need to give the accused sufficient time to move the regular Court for bail and to give the regular Court sufficient time to determine the bail application. In other words, till the bail application is disposed of one way or the other the Court may allow the accused to remain on anticipatory bail. To put it differently, anticipatory bail may be granted for a duration which may extend to the date on which the bail application is disposed of or even a few days thereafter to enable the accused persons to move the higher Court, if they so desire."
The observations made in the said judgment invited debate amongst jurists & and judges as to whether an accused allowed to remain on anticipatory bail till regular bail is disposed of by higher court can be said to be in 'custody' for exercising jurisdiction u/s 437/439 Cr.P.C. The gray part of the observation “or even a few days thereafter to enable the accused persons to move the higher Court, if they so desire” was held per-in curium in subsequent judgments of Hon'ble Supreme Court[2005(1)PLJR 270SC; 2007(7) SCC 558; AIR2009 SC 502]. It has been observed-
“For making an application under Section 439 the fundamental requirement is that the accused should be in custody. As observed in Salauddin's case (supra) the protection in terms of Section 438 is for a limited duration during which the regular Court has to be moved for bail. Obviously, such bail is bail in terms of Section 439 of the Code, mandating the applicant to be in custody. Otherwise, the distinction between orders under Sections 438 and 439 shall be rendered meaningless and redundant.
If the protective umbrella of Section 438 is extended beyond what was laid down in Salauddin's case (supra) the result would be clear bypassing of what is mandated in Section 439 regarding custody. In other words, till the applicant avails remedies upto higher Courts, the requirements of Section 439 become dead letter. No part of a statute can be rendered redundant in that manner”.xxii
Reasons given in K.L.Verma case require Legislative attention – Provision for anticipatory bail has been introduced in Cr.P.C to protect personal liberty from being violated by cases of false implication based on fabricated evidences in order to disgrace the accused by sending him to jail. The power has been given to higher courts for its careful exercise. The settled principle is that it should be for limited duration and it should not by-pass the powers of regular courts u/s 437/439 Cr.P.C. Thus, in a sessions triable case, the accused, even if, having got anticipatory bail from higher court for limited duration, after satisfying his false implication has to surrender before court of magistrate after cognizance and such magistrate, having no jurisdiction to grant bail in such cases, will have to send him to jail by rejecting his bail application. Then the accused is required to file bail application before sessions court who has jurisdiction to release him on bail.
If anticipatory bail is to be granted for limited duration only and it should not by-pass the powers of regular courts u/s 437/439 Cr.P.C, then there will be no way out for an innocent accused to protect his liberty between the period he surrenders before magistrate till disposal of his bail application from sessions court. In order to protect the valuable fundamental right of an innocent person under such circumstance, the Hon'ble judge in K.L.Verma case observed that anticipatory bail may granted for such extended period in order to enable the accused to move his regular bail application before a court having jurisdiction to grant bail. In Suneeta Devi case, Nirmaljit Kaur case (supra) and in other subsequent rulings, the reasonings of K.L.Verma case was not rejected and rather the observation was held per-in curium due to legal bar that a magistrate can not exercise powers u/s 437 Cr.P.C unless the accused is in custody. The question remains as to what may be done to protect liberty of an innocent person during the period he surrenders before magistrate till his bail application is disposed of by sessions court. The courts, under such circumstance, have evolved device that anticipatory bail are mostly granted without mentioning duration and thus an accused, who has been granted anticipatory bail continues to remain on such bail till end of trial. However it may not be correct application of law. To my mind it requires legislative interference and there must be provision enabling magistrate to grant provisional bail for reasonable period to an accused, who was granted anticipatory bail in a case punishable with death, life imprisonment or imprisonment exceeding ten years, in order to enable him to move for bail before sessions court.
Some Practical Questions -
·         Whether a lower court can grant regular bail to an accused whose anticipatory bail has been rejected by himself or higher court ?
Criteria for grant of anticipatory bail and regular bail are not academically different. However normally in cases of heinous offences, the courts show reluctance in granting anticipatory bails and used to direct the accused to surrender in court and apply for regular bail. Rejection of anticipatory bail in such cases should not affect consideration of regular bail on merit. If the anticipatory bail has been rejected on merit but during hearing of regular bail, fresh and additional material prima facie showing false implication of accused comes on record, regular bail may be granted by subordinate courts subject to his jurisdiction to grant bail in such cases.
·         Whether a lower court can reject regular bail of an accused who has been granted anticipatory bail by higher court till the period and he surrenders in court?
Normally, anticipatory bail applications are filed during early stage of investigation and regular bail applications are filed at advance stages of investigating or after completion of investigation. Regular bail application of accused availing anticipatory bail can only be refused on the ground of jurisdiction or where some fresh, additional and substantial evidence has surfaced.
·         Whether bail application of an accused, who was enlarged on bail during investigation, can be rejected after cognizance on ground that nature of offence has been changed and heinous offence has been found committed after completion of investigation.
Normally bail granted during investigation should continue after cognizance also unless there is application and grounds for cancellation of bail. Bail is granted considering facts and circumstances and not the sections in which FIR has been lodged. Addition of some sections does not affect the accrued rights of accused in this respect. But if after grant of bail during investigation, some new facts are discovered or serious consequences occur showing commission of more henious offence, the bail application may be rejected without there being application for cancellation of bail granted earlier. In the case of Prahlad Singh Bhati V NCT Delhixxiii, Hon'ble Apex Court has observed:
“The mere initial grant of anticipatory bail for lesser offence, did not entitle the respondent to insist for regular bail even if he was subsequently found to be involved in the case of murder. Neither S. 437(5) nor S. 439(1) of the Code was attracted. There was no question of cancellation of bail earlier granted to the accused for an offence punishable under Ss. 498-A, 306 and 406, I.P.C. The Magistrate committed an irregularity by holding that "I do not agree with the submission made by the learned Prosecutor inasmuch as if we go by his submissions then the accused would be liable for arrest every time the charge is altered or enhanced at any stage, which is certainly not the spirit of law." With the change of the nature of the offence, the accused becomes disentitled to the liberty granted to him in relation to a minor offence, if the offence is altered for an aggravated crime. Instead of referring tothe grounds which entitled the respondent-accused the grant of bail, the Magistrate adopted a wrong approach to confer him the benefit of liberty on allegedly finding that no grounds were made out for cancellation of bail.”
Bail after conviction- Bail granted to an accused in chapter XXXIII Cr.P.C. comes to end after his conviction and he is taken in custody. However the trial court may grant provisional bail to accused u/s 389(3) Cr.P.C. to enable him to prefer appeal subject to following conditions:
1.      The accused was on bail during trial and
2.      He is convicted in bailable section or he is sentenced for a term not exceeding three years.
However, for reasons to be recorded, the trial court may refuse to grant bail to accused even in the circumstances mentioned above. The appellate court grants bail to accused during pendency of appeal u/s 389(1) Cr.P.C. A question arises as to what are the principles for grant of bail u/s 389 Cr.P.C. Hon'ble Supreme Court, in a recent ruling has observed:
“Section 389 of the Code deals with suspension of execution of sentence pending the appeal and release of the appellant on bail. There is a distinction between bail and suspension of sentence. One of the essential ingredients of Section 389 is the requirement for the appellate Court to record reasons in writing for ordering suspension of execution of the sentence or order appealed against. If he is in confinement, the said court can direct that he be released on bail, or on his own bond. The requirement of recording reasons in writing clearly indicates that there has to be careful consideration of the relevant aspects and the order directing suspension of sentence and grant of bail should not be passed as a matter of routine.
The mere fact that during the trial, they were granted bail and there was no allegation of misuse of liberty, is really not of much significance. The effect of bail granted during trial loses significance when on completion of trial, the accused persons have been found guilty. The mere fact that during the period when the accused persons were on bail during trial there was no misuse of liberties, does not per se warrant suspension of execution of sentence and grant of bail. What really was necessary to be considered by the High Court is whether reasons existed to suspend the execution of sentence and thereafter grant bail.”xxiv
Bail to persons other than accused- Apart from accused persons, warrants may also be issued against witnesses during trial. When such person appears or is brought before court, he may be released on bail u/s 88 of Cr.P.C. The trial court court may also require any witness present in court to execute bond for his appearance in such court or any other court to which the case may be transferred for trial. Normally the courts allow release of such witnesses on execution of personel bond.
i2009(2)PLJR 35 SC
ii1958 SCR 1226 Talab Haji Hussain v. Madhukar Purushottam Mondkar and another
iii1967(3) SCR 926 Ratilal Bhanji Mithani v. Asstt. Collector of Customs and Anr.
ivAIR 2009 SC 1341 Rasiklal v Kishor Khamchand Wadhwani
v AIR 2009 SC 94 Lokesh Singh V State of UP
vi AIR 2005 SC 498 Sunita Devi v State of Bihar
vii 2001AIR SCW 5129 Maninder Kaur V Teja Singh
viiiPara 39.9 of 41st report of law commission
ixPara 31 of 48th report of law commission
x1980 Cri.L.J1125 Gurubux Singh v State of Punjab
xi2005(4)SCC 303 Adri Dharan Das v State of WB
xiiAIR 2009 SC 254 Union of India v Padma Narayan Agrawal
xiiiAIR 2009 SC 502 Parvinderjit Singh v State
xivAIR 1996 SC 1042 Salauddin Abdul samd sheikh v State of Maharastra
xv AIR 2009 SC 1362 Vaman Narayan Ghiya v State of Rajasthan
xviJT 2002(1) SC 291 Amarjit Singh v State of NCT of Delhi
xvii2002(2) SCC 66 Sandeep Jain v NCT of Delhi
xviiiAIR 2009 SC 1629 Galaskasden Grace v Inspector of Police
xixAIR 2009 SC 2072 Mahesh Bhasin v State (NCT of Delhi)
xx AIR 2009 SC 2080 Fida Hussain Bohra v State of Maharastra
xxi AIR 2003SC 4662 Bharat Chaudhary v State of Bihar
xxii2007(7)SCC558 Nirmaljeet Kaur v State of MP
AIR2005SC498 Sunita Devi v State of Bihar
xxiiiAIR 2001 SC 1444 Prahlad Singh Bhati V NCT Delhi
xxiv 2009AIR SCW 945 Masood Ali Khan V State of UP


Bail is your Right --------and------ 498A is your Fight

Don't Loose hope you are not the one who is suffering from bad law,there are millions of husbands and families who had suffered due to this draconian law.

Once you got AB or Bail you have won your Half battle,remaining battle is only by default because our slow Indian judiciary will not make her win nor make you defeat.
It's only an Indian court drama which will last for 2-3 years and lastly goes for settlement outside the court.
Hence, these settlements are only a bargaining which is just like purchasing a bag full of vegetables from near market after so many bargains.The Husband who holds his nerves till the last moment and never bow down against such exorbitant price is the winner indeed against these false cases.
So, Take the Bail and Fight the cases with a cheerful intention in your heart that you are on the way of freedom which will be soon conquered by you...


Friday, 14 February 2014

Husband was sent to jail for false murder case of wife whereas wife eloped with her boyfriend...

A "dead" woman was found to be living with her boyfriend, now her husband, in Varanasi while the first husband is languishing in jail for "murdering" her.
The facts when explored .......
It was found that she eloped with her boyfriend making her husband to land up in jail in false charges of murder of his wife.
Finally she was arrested and sent to jail...

'Dead' woman resurfaces; 'killer' husband languishing in jail

PTI  Ranchi, December 23, 2013
First Published: 19:21 IST(23/12/2013) | Last Updated: 19:31 IST(23/12/2013)
A "dead" woman was found to be living with her boyfriend, now her husband, in Varanasi while the first husband is languishing in jail for "murdering" her, police said on Monday.

Police said five other people arrested in connection with the murder are out on bail.
The woman, Pinki, was produced Monday in a court in Giridih, 300 km from state capital Ranchi.
In 2010, Pinki's first marriage was solemnised with Arun Kumar.

On June 20, 2011, Pinki and Arun were headed to Bilaspur when she went missing. It later came to light that she eloped with her boyfriend, Nitesh Ram, and tied the knot.
Pinki's parents had lodged an FIR against Arun, alleging that she was killed by her in-laws. Six people, including Arun, were jailed.
Arun's family members found Pinki leading a married life with her second husband and a two-and-a-half-year child from the first marriage, in Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. They then informed the police and she was arrested.


Thursday, 13 February 2014


on professional standards

Advocates, in addition to being professionals, are also officers of the courts and play a vital role in the administration of justice.
Accordingly, the set of rules that govern their professional conduct arise out of the duty that they owe the court, the client, their opponents and other advocates.

Rules on the professional standards that an advocate needs to maintain are mentioned in Chapter II, Part VI of the Bar Council of India Rules. These rules have been placed there under section 49(1)(c) of the Advocates Act, 1961.
Click here to see the Advocates Act, 1961
Click here to see Parts I, II and III of the Bar Council of India Rules
Click here to see Part IV of the Bar Council of India Rules (Rules on Legal Education)
Click here to see Parts V, VI, VII, VIII and IX of the Bar Council of India Rules


1. Act in a dignified manner
During the presentation of his case and also while acting before a court, an advocate should act in a dignified manner. He should at all times conduct himself with self-respect. However, whenever there is proper ground for serious complaint against a judicial officer, the advocate has a right and duty to submit his grievance to proper authorities.

2. Respect the court
An advocate should always show respect towards the court. An advocate has to bear in mind that the dignity and respect maintained towards judicial office is essential for the survival of a free community.

3. Not communicate in private
An advocate should not communicate in private to a judge with regard to any matter pending before the judge or any other judge. An advocate should not influence the decision of a court in any matter using illegal or improper means such as coercion, bribe etc.

4. Refuse to act in an illegal manner towards the opposition
An advocate should refuse to act in an illegal or improper manner towards the opposing counsel or the opposing parties. He shall also use his best efforts to restrain and prevent his client from acting in any illegal, improper manner or use unfair practices in any mater towards the judiciary, opposing counsel or the opposing parties.

5. Refuse to represent clients who insist on unfair means

An advocate shall refuse to represent any client who insists on using unfair or improper means. An advocate shall excise his own judgment in such matters. He shall not blindly follow the instructions of the client. He shall be dignified in use of his language in correspondence and during arguments in court. He shall not scandalously damage the reputation of the parties on false grounds during pleadings. He shall not use unparliamentary language during arguments in the court.

6. Appear in proper dress code
An advocate should appear in court at all times only in the dress prescribed under the Bar Council of India Rules and his appearance should always be presentable.

7. Refuse to appear in front of relations
An advocate should not enter appearance, act, plead or practice in any way before a judicial authority if the sole or any member of the bench is related to the advocate as father, grandfather, son, grandson, uncle, brother, nephew, first cousin, husband, wife, mother, daughter, sister, aunt, niece, father-in-law, mother-in-law, son-in-law, brother-in-law daughter-in-law or sister-in-law.

8. Not to wear bands or gowns in public places
An advocate should not wear bands or gowns in public places other than in courts, except on such ceremonial occasions and at such places as the Bar Council of India or as the court may prescribe.

9. Not represent establishments of which he is a member
An advocate should not appear in or before any judicial authority, for or against any establishment if he is a member of the management of the establishment. This rule does not apply to a member appearing as “amicus curiae” or without a fee on behalf of the Bar Council, Incorporated Law Society or a Bar Association.

10. Not appear in matters of pecuniary interest
An advocate should not act or plead in any matter in which he has financial interests. For instance, he should not act in a bankruptcy petition when he is also a creditor of the bankrupt. He should also not accept a brief from a company of which he is a Director.

11. Not stand as surety for client
An advocate should not stand as a surety, or certify the soundness of a surety that his client requires for the purpose of any legal proceedings.


1. Bound to accept briefs
An advocate is bound to accept any brief in the courts or tribunals or before any other authority in or before which he proposes to practise. He should levy fees which is at par with the fees collected by fellow advocates of his standing at the Bar and the nature of the case. Special circumstances may justify his refusal to accept a particular brief.

2. Not withdraw from service
An advocate should not ordinarily withdraw from serving a client once he has agreed to serve them. He can withdraw only if he has a sufficient cause and by giving reasonable and sufficient notice to the client. Upon withdrawal, he shall refund such part of the fee that has not accrued to the client.

3. Not appear in matters where he himself is a witness
An advocate should not accept a brief or appear in a case in which he himself is a witness. If he has a reason to believe that in due course of events he will be a witness, then he should not continue to appear for the client. He should retire from the case without jeopardising his client’s interests.

4. Full and frank disclosure to client
An advocate should, at the commencement of his engagement and during the continuance thereof, make all such full and frank disclosure to his client relating to his connection with the parties and any interest in or about the controversy as are likely to affect his client’s judgement in either engaging him or continuing the engagement.

5. Uphold interest of the client
It shall be the duty of an advocate fearlessly to uphold the interests of his client by all fair and honourable means. An advocate shall do so without regard to any unpleasant consequences to himself or any other. He shall defend a person accused of a crime regardless of his personal opinion as to the guilt of the accused. An advocate should always remember that his loyalty is to the law, which requires that no man should be punished without adequate evidence.

6. Not suppress material or evidence
An advocate appearing for the prosecution of a criminal trial should conduct the proceedings in a manner that it does not lead to conviction of the innocent. An advocate shall by no means suppress any material or evidence, which shall prove the innocence of the accused.

7. Not disclose the communications between client and himself
An advocate should not by any means, directly or indirectly, disclose the communications made by his client to him. He also shall not disclose the advice given by him in the proceedings. However, he is liable to disclose if it violates Section 126 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.

8. An advocate should not be a party to stir up or instigate litigation.

9. An advocate should not act on the instructions of any person other than his client or the client’s authorised agent.

10. Not charge depending on success of matters

An advocate should not charge for his services depending on the success of the matter undertaken. He also shall not charge for his services as a percentage of the amount or property received after the success of the matter.

11. Not receive interest in actionable claim
An advocate should not trade or agree to receive any share or interest in any actionable claim. Nothing in this rule shall apply to stock, shares and debentures of government securities, or to any instruments, which are, for the time being, by law or custom, negotiable or to any mercantile document of title to goods.

12. Not bid or purchase property arising of legal proceeding
An advocate should not by any means bid for, or purchase, either in his own name or in any other name, for his own benefit or for the benefit of any other person, any property sold in any legal proceeding in which he was in any way professionally engaged. However, it does not prevent an advocate from bidding for or purchasing for his client any property on behalf of the client provided the Advocate is expressly authorised in writing in this behalf.

13. Not bid or transfer property arising of legal proceeding
An advocate should not by any means bid in court auction or acquire by way of sale, gift, exchange or any other mode of transfer (either in his own name or in any other name for his own benefit or for the benefit of any other person), any property which is the subject matter of any suit, appeal or other proceedings in which he is in any way professionally engaged.

14. Not adjust fees against personal liability
An advocate should not adjust fee payable to him by his client against his own personal liability to the client, which does not arise in the course of his employment as an advocate.

15.An advocate should not misuse or takes advantage of the confidence reposed in him by his client.

16.Keep proper accounts
An advocate should always keep accounts of the clients’ money entrusted to him. The accounts should show the amounts received from the client or on his behalf. The account should show along with the expenses incurred for him and the deductions made on account of fees with respective dates and all other necessary particulars.

17. Divert money from accounts
An advocate should mention in his accounts whether any monies received by him from the client are on account of fees or expenses during the course of any proceeding or opinion. He shall not divert any part of the amounts received for expenses as fees without written instruction from the client.

18. Intimate the client on amounts
Where any amount is received or given to him on behalf of his client, the advocate must without any delay intimate the client of the fact of such receipt.

19. Adjust fees after termination of proceedings
An advocate shall after the termination of proceedings, be at liberty to adjust the fees due to him from the account of the client. The balance in the account can be the amount paid by the client or an amount that has come in that proceeding. Any amount left after the deduction of the fees and expenses from the account must be returned to the client.

20. Provide copy of accounts
An advocate must provide the client with the copy of the client’s account maintained by him on demand, provided that the necessary copying charge is paid.

21. An advocate shall not enter into arrangements whereby funds in his hands are converted into loans.

22. Not lend money to his client
An advocate shall not lend money to his client for the purpose of any action or legal proceedings in which he is engaged by such client. An advocate cannot be held guilty for a breach of this rule, if in the course of a pending suit or proceeding, and without any arrangement with the client in respect of the same, the advocate feels compelled by reason of the rule of the Court to make a payment to the Court on account of the client for the progress of the suit or proceeding.

23. Not appear for opposite parties
An advocate who has advised a party in connection with the institution of a suit, appeal or other matter or has drawn pleadings, or acted for a party, shall not act, appear or plead for the opposite party in the same matter.


1. Not to negotiate directly with opposing party
An advocate shall not in any way communicate or negotiate or call for settlement upon the subject matter of controversy with any party represented by an advocate except through the advocate representing the parties.

2. Carry out legitimate promises made
An advocate shall do his best to carry out all legitimate promises made to the opposite party even though not reduced to writing or enforceable under the rules of the Court.


1. Not advertise or solicit work
An advocate shall not solicit work or advertise in any manner. He shall not promote himself by circulars, advertisements, touts, personal communications, interviews other than through personal relations, furnishing or inspiring newspaper comments or producing his photographs to be published in connection with cases in which he has been engaged or concerned.

2. Sign-board and Name-plate
An advocate’s sign-board or name-plate should be of a reasonable size. The sign-board or name-plate or stationery should not indicate that he is or has been President or Member of a Bar Council or of any Association or that he has been associated with any person or organisation or with any particular cause or matter or that he specialises in any particular type of work or that he has been a Judge or an Advocate General.

3. Not promote unauthorized practice of law
An advocate shall not permit his professional services or his name to be used for promoting or starting any unauthorised practice of law.

4. An advocate shall not accept a fee less than the fee, which can be taxed under rules when the client is able to pay more.

5. Consent of fellow advocate to appear

An advocate should not appear in any matter where another advocate has filed a vakalt or memo for the same party. However, the advocate can take the consent of the other advocate for appearing.
In case, an advocate is not able to present the consent of the advocate who has filed the matter for the same party, then he should apply to the court for appearance. He shall in such application mention the reason as to why he could not obtain such consent. He shall appear only after obtaining the permission of the Court.


Woman should be booked for filing fake rape case, says HC

Thursday, August 1, 2013 - 10:43 IST | Agency: DNA
Distinguish between genuine and false plaints, cops told.

If a woman lodges a false complaint of rape, then she should be prosecuted, observed the Bombay high court on Wednesday while granting anticipatory bail to an Art of Living teacher accused of rape.
Justice Sadhana Jadhav said, “The police should be careful and distinguish between genuine cases and false complaints.”
The judge remarked that of late several cases were coming to the HC in which ‘victims’ had filed rape complaints and alleged that they had entered into relationships after being promised marriage.
“In a relationship between consenting adults, sometimes, such complaints are filed in the heat of the moment. This sends wrong signals to society,” observed justice Jadhav.
The judge said the police should conduct initial inquiry into the matter and decide whether it is a genuine complaint or not.
The court was hearing an anticipatory bail application filed by Divyesh Vala, 35. He had sought anticipatory bail saying he has been falsely implicated and the case is causing him severe harm and mental agony. The complaint was filed by a central excise inspector, 42, alleging Vala raped her on the pretext of marrying her.
According to additional public prosecutor, Anil Shitole, the victim, who is also a divorcee, had contacted Vala through a social networking website, where they became good friends. Vala later cut all ties with her and married another woman in May. Following this, she registered a complaint with the RAK Marg police station in June this year.
Justice Jadhav, while granting Vala anticipatory bail against a surety of Rs15,000, said that both of them are adults and the victim, in her complaint, never said that she had sexual relations with Vala because he promised to marry her.
The court observed that Vala cannot be sent to custody as it would not serve any fruitful purpose except satisfying the complainant’s vendetta.
Justice Jadhav has directed him to report to the RAK Marg police station on Sundays.